Spanish, official language
Even though Quecha and Guarani are still spoken by indigenous communities in the north of the country, Spanish is the tongue that's spoken across Argentina. If you want to be able to chat and get on with the Argentinians, you'll need to learn some basic Spanish. What's more the Argentinians love talking to and having a laugh with foreign visitors. It would be a shame to miss out on such opportunities due a language barrier. If you don't speak Spanish, do your best to learn some basic vocab and expressions before you leave. Just learning the minimum will help you get by on a daily basis. Don't be shy, the Argentinians will love that you're making the effort and won't take the mickey if you make mistakes or if your accent isn't up to scratch. And you can always pull out your English-Spanish dictionary.
A different accent
If you're used to the Spanish that's spoken in Spain or the rest of South America, you could be thrown off kilter by the Agentinian accent. For example, they often don't pronounce the final 's' in words. Argentinians often swallow this last letter. It may sound wierd at first, but you'll find yourself doing so too! 'R' or double 'R' s are pronounced differently depending on the region. Sometimes it's forced, other times it just glides off the tongue. The most surprising difference between Spanish here and that which is spoken in Madrid, Mexico or Bogota, is the prononciation of 'll' and 'y'. In Buenos Aires and elsewhere, 'll' is pronounced as a 'ch'. You'll need to bear this in mind in order to understand. For example, if you want to ask someone their name ("commo te llamas") you need to say "como te chamas". Argentinians who hear foreigners speak like a cowboy from the 'pampas' will be in 7th Heaven.